Common Welding Codes And Standards

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While occasional and hobby welders can practice and enjoy welding on their own, manufacturers and industrial and institutional plants must comply with welding codes.

Welding codes offer a uniform way to approach welding. Therefore, the customers know they are getting the highest quality products with uniform, solid and reliable welds.

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You should know that welding codes are established by renowned organizations, such as the American Welding Society (AWS) or the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Next, the codes are adopted and put into practice. In this article, we will cover the common ones.

Welding Codes And Organizations Behind Them

As we noted at the beginning, welding codes are developed by specific organizations and then applied by users around the US. These codes specify the requirements for weld testing, inspection, repair, approved materials, fabrication, design specifications, and welding.

The first part of any welding code is the welding procedure specification (WPS). Welders are given all the information about materials, weld direction, parameters, and joint design.

Once the welder has completed the weld, it undergoes the welding procedure qualification record (PQR). This record tests all welds that are done according to WPS.

Finally, the welder qualification test record (WQTR) shows if the weld passed and followed all the WPS stated parameters.

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While there are welding codes and standards around the globe, this article will cover the ones that concern welding in the US. Typical organizations that comply regulations in the US are:

American welding society (AWS) Welding Codes

The American Welding Society (AWS) was founded in 1919, as a nonprofit organization. The mission of the organization is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied joining and cutting processes. Codes include standards of other metal joining processes such as brazing, soldering, and thermal spraying.

A standard is a document used repeatedly, as a rule, guideline, or definition. All AWS standards are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Today, there are more than 350 AWS standards, and here are the detailed lists published welding codes.

AWS A2.4 Standard symbols for welding processes, brazing, and non-destructive examination.
AWS A3.0Standard welding terms and definitions.
AWS A5.1 Specification for carbon steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding (manual metal arc welding).
AWS A5.18 Specification for carbon steel electrodes and rods for gas welding (shielded gas welding)
AWS B1.10 Guide for the non-destructive examination of welds.
AWS D1.1Structural welding of steel.
AWS D1.2 Structural welding of aluminum.
AWS D1.3 Structural welding of sheet steel.
AWS D1.4 Structural welding of reinforcing steel.
AWS D1.5 Bridge welding procedure.
AWS D1.6 Structural welding stainless steels
AWS D1.7 Structural welding, strengthening, and repair.
AWS D1.8Structural welding seismic supplement.
AWS D1.9 Structural welding of titanium.
AWS D8.1 Automotive spot welding (resistance).
AWS D8.6Automotive spot welding electrodes supplement.
AWS D8.7 Automotive spot welding recommendations supplement.
AWS D8.8 Automotive arc welding of steel.
AWS D8.9 Automotive spot weld testing.
AWS D8.14 Automotive arc welding aluminum.
AWS D9.1Sheet metal welding.
AWS D10.10 Heating practices for pipe and tube.
AWS D10.11 Root pass welding for pipe.
AWS D10.12Pipe welding (mild steel).
AWS D10.13 Tube brazing (copper).
AWS D10.18 Pipe welding (stainless steel).
AWS D11.2Welding (cast iron).
AWS D14.1 Industrial mill crane welding.
AWS D14.3Earthmoving & agricultural equipment welding.
AWS D14.4 Machinery joint welding.
AWS D14.5 Press welding.
AWS D14.6 Industrial mill roll surfacing.
AWS D15.1 Railroad welding.
AWS D15.2 Railroad welding practice supplement.
AWS D16.1 Robotic arc welding safety.
AWS D16.2 Robotic arc welding system installation.
AWS D16.3 Robotic arc welding risk assessment.
AWS D16.4 Robotic arc welder operator qualification.
AWS D17.1 Aerospace fusion welding.
AWS D17.2 Aerospace resistance welding.
AWS D18.1 Hygienic tube welding (stainless steel).
AWS D18.2 Stainless steel tube discoloration guide.
AWS D18.3 Hygienic equipment welding.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) covers all aspects of the design and manufacture of boilers and pressure vessels. ASME codes and standards, publications, conferences, continuing education, and professional development programs provide a foundation for advancing technical knowledge and a safer world.

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ASME BPVC Section I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
ASME BPVC Section II Part C: Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes and Filler Metals.
ASME BPVC Section III Rules for Constructions of Nuclear Facility Components-Subsection NCA-General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2
ASME BPVC Section IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
ASME BPVC Section V Nondestructive Examination
ASME Section VI Recommended Rules For the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
ASME Section VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
ASME BPVC Section VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels Division 1 and Division 2
ASME BPVC Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications
ASME Section X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
ASME Section XI Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
ASME Section XII Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
ASME B16.25 Buttwelding ends
ASME B31.1 Power Piping
ASME B31.2Fuel Gas Piping-Material
ASME B31.3Process Piping
ASME B31.4Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohol
ASME B31.5Piping Refrigeration
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution
ASME B31.9Building Services Piping

American Petroleum Institute (API) Welding Codes

API represents all segments of America’s natural gas and oil industry. For more than 90 years, API has led the development of petroleum, natural gas, and petrochemical equipment and operating standards.

These represent the industry’s collective wisdom, and today, there are more than 800 standards and recommended practices. However, we will cover only the API codes that concern welding.

API RP 577 Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
API RP 582 Welding Guidelines for the Chemical, Oil, and Gas Industries
API 570Piping Inspection
API 620Welded Steel Tanks for Storage
API 653Tank Reconstruction, Alteration, Repair and Inspection
API 1104 Welding of pipelines and related facilities
API 1169 Basic Inspection Requirements for New Pipeline Construction

American Society for Non-Destructive Testing (ASNT) Codes

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (ASNT) is the world’s largest technical society for nondestructive testing (NDT) professionals. ASNT is the world leader in organizing and sponsoring conferences and meetings pertaining to NDT.

ASNT does not publish standards that describe how to perform NDT tasks. Standards and Recommended Practices developed by ASNT define qualification and certification for NDT personnel.

ANSI/ASNT CP-189ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ANSI/ASNT CP-105ASNT Standard Topical Outlines for Qualification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ANSI/ASNT CP-106Nondestructive Testing – Qualification, and Certification of Personnel
ANSI/ASNT ILI-PQ-2010In-line Inspection Personnel Qualification, and Certification Standard

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards

In addition to common codes, an important role in manual metal arc welding and manufacturing takes welding ISO codes. ISO standards are internationally agreed by experts. There are 18500 standards, and over 1100 new standards are published every year, but we will cover only the ones that concern welding.

ISO 2560 Welding consumables Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of non-alloy and fine grain steels. Classification
ISO 3580 Covered electrodes for manual arc welding of creep-resisting steels – Code of symbols for identification
ISO 3581 Covered electrodes for manual arc welding of stainless and other similar high alloy steels – Code of symbols for identification
ISO 3834 Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials, five parts.
ISO 4063Welding and allied processes – Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers
ISO 5817 Welding. Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded). Quality levels for imperfections
ISO 6520-1Welding and allied processes — Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials — Part 1: Fusion welding
ISO 6520-2 Welding and allied processes — Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials — Part 2: Welding with pressure
ISO 6947 Welds. Working positions. Definitions of angles of slope and rotation
ISO 9606 Qualification test of welders — Fusion welding, parts 1 to 5
ISO 9692-1 Welding and allied processes. Recommendations for joint preparation. Manual metal-arc welding, gas-shielded metal-arc welding, gas welding, TIG welding, and beam welding of steels
ISO 9692-2Welding and allied processes. Joint preparation. Submerged arc welding of steels
ISO 9692-3 Welding and allied processes. Joint preparation. Part 3: TIG and MIG welding of aluminum and its alloys
ISO 13847 Petroleum and natural gas industries – Pipeline transportation systems – Welding of Pipelines
ISO 13916Welding – Guidance on the measurement of preheating temperature, interpass temperature and preheat maintenance temperature
ISO 13918Welding – Studs and ceramic ferrules for arc stud welding
ISO 13919-1Welding – Electron beam welding and laser-beam welding joints – Guidance on quality level for imperfections – Part 1: Steel
ISO 13919-2 Welding – Electron and laser-beam welded joints – Guidance on quality level for imperfections – Part 2: Aluminium and its weldable alloys
ISO 13920Welding – General tolerances for welded constructions – Dimensions for lengths and angles – Shape and position
ISO 14112Gas welding equipment – Small kits for gas brazing and welding
ISO 14175Welding consumables — Gases and gas mixtures for fusion welding and allied processes. Replaced EN 439:1994 in European arc welding symbols.
ISO 14341 Welding consumables. Wire electrodes and deposits for gas shielded metal arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steels. Classification
ISO 14554 Resistance welding
ISO 14744Electron beam welding, six parts
ISO 15607 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials – General Rules
ISO/TR 15608Welding – Guidelines for a metallic material grouping system
ISO 15609 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials – Welding procedure specification, five parts.
ISO 15610 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Qualification based on tested welding consumables
ISO 15611Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Qualification based on previous welding experience
ISO 15612 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Qualification by adoption of a standard welding procedure
ISO 15613 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Qualification based on pre-production welding test
ISO 15614 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials – Welding procedure test, 13 parts.
ISO 17635 Non-destructive testing of welds. General rules for metallic materials
ISO/TR 20172 Welding — Grouping systems for materials — European materials
ISO/TR 20173 Welding — Grouping systems for materials — American materials
ISO/TR 20174Welding — Grouping systems for materials — Japanese materials European Union
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Adam Mason

Welder by trade for a decade and more. Now also a web designer and a blog owner. Doing product reviews and writing blogs about welding trade and perks and minuses of being a welder.

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